Degree Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (BS)

Date Information




First Advisor

Gwen Scottgale


Myopia is one of the most common eye diseases that affect the U.S. and the world. Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a condition of the eye in which light focuses in front of the retina rather than on the retina. Recent studies have shown that myopia is a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Myopia has increased dramatically in children due to increased near work and decreased time outdoors. As the disease has become increasingly more common, new treatments have been developed to manage and stop the progression of it. This review looks at recent literature and clinical studies to determine what works for myopia control. Low dose atropine and pirenzepine proved to be effective but is rarely used due to the multitude of side effects. Treatments such as undercorrection, bifocals, progressive lenses, orthokeratology contacts, and multifocal contacts were evaluated for effectiveness, safety, and practicality. The results of these studies showed that undercorrection was either harmful or had no effect on myopia progression. Bifocals and progressive corrective lenses showed positive results in some studies but were ineffective in others. Orthokeratology proved to be effective in slowing myopia progression, but often resulted in infections. Increased time outdoors and light exposure decreases the risk of developing myopia, but not slowing its progression. Multifocal contact lenses were the most effective and safest intervention as they slowed myopia progression by nearly 50% when compared to the control group.